The most important step in the preparation of fruit juices is the sterilization of the juice. Temperatures should be used which will sterilize the juices without imparting a cooked taste. The recipes include directions for the preparation of the fruit juices that have been found by experience to be satisfactory beverages. Certain fruits such as peaches, apricots, and prunes, do not give satisfactory juices and are therefore omitted.
(41) Apple Juice.
Apples for the production of juice should possess a marked flavor. Winesap, Northern Spy, Gravenstein, Newtown Pippin, are all good for this purpose. Use clean, sound fruit and not wormy culls. A thermometer that may be immersed in the juice or water will be necessary. A dairy thermometer reading to 185° F. or higher will answer the purpose. See Chap. VII for description of crushers and presses.
1. Crush or grind the fruit and press out the juice. If the fruit is heated to 150º to 160º F. (not above 160° F.) for a few minutes it will press more easily. Heat the juice to 150° F. in a pot.
2. Strain or filter the juice through a jelly bag or other filtering device. It is usually desirable to strain the juice twice.
3. Fill the juice into bottles, allowing a space of about 1 1/2 inches in the necks of the bottles for expansion of the juice during sterilization. Crown finish bottles are best if any large amount of juice is to be put up.
4. Cork the bottles with corks previously sterilized for 10 min. in boiling water. Tie the corks down with a string to hold them in the bottles during sterilization. If crown caps and bottles are used, place the caps on the bottles With a crown bottle capping machine. (See Fig. 24.)
5. Pasteurization. Lay the bottles in a horizontal position on the false wooden bottom of a washboiler or large pot. Fill the boiler or pot with water. Heat the water slowly until a thermometer held in the water registers 175° F. Maintain this temperature for 20 min. (See Fig. 25.) For larger scale pasteurization a large wooden vat with false bottom and heated with steam coils may be used. The washboiler or other pasteurizer may be filled full of bottles so long as the water completely covers them.
6. Paraffining the Corks. As soon as the bottles are removed, clip the ends of necks and corks in melted paraffin. Dip again when the bottles are cold. This prevents molding. Dipping is not necessary for Crown Caps.
7. Canning Apple Juice. The strained apple juice may also be pasteurized in cans. Enamel lined cans are safer to use than plain tin lined cans because of the action of the juice on tin. Fill the cans with juice. Seal them. Pasteurize as described above for bottles. Solder top cans previously described, or sanitary cans that may be sealed with a small hand power capping machine may be used.
(42) Red Grape Juice.
1. Varieties of Grapes. Red grape juice should have a pleasing and pronounced flavor in addition to a deep red color and tart taste. Practically none of the European varieties of red grapes grown in the United States possess all of these characteristics. They are, however, found in Eastern varieties. They may also he obtained from European varieties if two varieties of European grapes are mixed or their juices blended.
An excellent combination of European varieties is made of equal quantities of Muscat and any good variety of red wine grape. The Muscat furnishes flavor. Petite Serah, Zinfandel, Carignarne and Mat.aro or other common variety of red wine grape may be used for color and acid. Better varieties for this purpose are Barbera St. Macaire, and Refosco. The Muscat is a large white raisin and shipping grape of very pronounced flavor. It is grown very extensively in California. The other varieties are red wine grapes grown in California. Any Eastern variety of good color may be used without the addition of red wine grapes. Concord and Isabella are both good varieties.
2. Picking. The grapes should not be too ripe. If a Balling sugar tester is available, test the grapes from time to time during ripening. Muscat grapes should be picked at about 22% sugar when tested with the Balling saccharometer; red grapes at 18% to 20%, that is, when they are still quite acid or tart.
3. Crushing. Crush thoroughly. This can be done in an agateware pot with a potato masher or with the hands. If Muscats are used, mix with an equal amount of some red wine grape.
4. Heating to Extract Color. Heat the crushed grapes with a thermometer inserted until a temperature of 140° F. is reached. Stir the grapes often. Remove the heated grapes from the stove and allow to stand in an agateware or aluminum pot overnight. On a large scale the grapes may be crushed in a hand power grape crusher (see Fig. 22),. and heated in a wooden vat by means of a tin steam coil or in a large tin lined or alum- mum steam kettle. Both methods are used commercially. The juice may also be heated after pressing from the grapes and then returned hot to the grapes to remove the color.
5. Pressing. Press the grapes after they have stood overnight as directed above. Small quantities may be pressed through a jelly hag or flour sack. A ciderpress (see Fig. 22), may be used for larger quantities.
6. Filtering. As directed for apple juice, Recipe 41.
7. Bottling and Pasteurizing. As for apple juice. Grape juice may also be pasteurized in cans to good advantage.
(43) Loganberry, Blackberry, and Raspberry Juices.
1. Use ripe well colored berries. Crush thoroughly.
2. Heat in an agateware or aluminum pot to 150º to 160º F. with a thermometer inserted.
3. Press hot through a bag or press. Strain several times until fairly clear.
4. To each gallon of loganberry or blackberry juice, add 2 lbs. of sugar. To each gallon of raspberry juice, add 2 lbs. of sugar and 1 pt. of lemon juice.
5. Bottle, and pasteurize as for apple juice.
6. The juice is diluted with from one to two cups of water to each cup of juice before serving. Loganberry juice has become one of the most popular fruit juice beverages of the United States.
(44) Lemon Juice.
Lemon juice does not retain its flavor well after pasteurizing. Cull lemons and "juice" lemons may often be obtained from lemon orchards or packing houses very cheaply.
1. Cut the lemons in half. Remove the pulp and juice in a lemon squeezer or on a glass lemon cone. Strain out coarse pulp.
2. Bottle and pasteurize as directed for apple juice. (Recipe 41.)
Lemon juice develops a "limey" or "stale" flavor in time but is still good for lemonade.
(45) Orange Juice.
1. Use ripe fruit.. Fruit at the beginning of the season will make a bitter juice.
2. Peel the fruit to remove oil cells. Crush and press out juice. Or cut the whole oranges in half and remove pulp and juice on an orange cone.
3. Strain through a cheesecloth. Do not remove all the pulp by straining because it contains the flavor. Do not allow oil from the skins to get into the juice because this in time becomes stale in flavor.
4. Bottle and pasteurize as for apple juice. (See Recipe 41.)
Orange juice retains its flavor only a short time, not more than two or three months and is not very satisfactory as a bottled juice.
(46) Orange-Lemon Juice.
1. Mix 1 pint of lemon juice with each gallon of orange juice. Add 2 lbs. of sugar to each gallon.
2. Bottle and pasteurize as directed for apple juice. (Recipe 41.) To serve this juice, dilute each cup of juice with 1 or 2 cupfuls of water.
This juice retains its flavor much better than ordinary orange juice.
(47) Grape Fruit Juice.
1. Cut the fruit in half and remove pulp and juice on a glass cone.
2. Strain through cheesecloth.
3. Heat in an agateware pot to 175° F. and fill into scalded bottles, filling them full.
4. Cork and tie down the corks.
5. Place bottles in water previously heated to 175° F. and keep at 175° F. for 20 min.
6. Remove bottles and seal with paraffin. This method removes the air from the bottles and prevents darkening of the juice, which would otherwise take place.
Grape fruit juice is the most satisfactory of all citrus fruit juices. A great deal of this is now bottled in Florida for sale.
(48) Pomegranate Juice.
1. Choose well colored ripe fruit.. Cut fruit in half and remove kernels. Be careful not to get any of rind or pulp mixed with the kernels.
2. Crush the kernels, press out the juice and heat to 150º F.
3. Allow the juice to stand overnight. Strain until fairly clear.
4. Add 1 lb. of sugar to each gallon of juice.
5. Bottle and pasteurize as directed for apple juice. (See Recipe 41).
(49) Pineapple Juice.
1. Use well ripened fruit. Remove butts and rinds. Crush the pulp and press out the juice.
2. Heat the juice to 150º to 160° F. in an agateware or aluminum pot. Allow to stand overnight. Filter.
3. Bottle and pasteurize as directed for apple juice.
(50) Clarification of Fruit Juices.
In addition to filtration, fruit juices may be made clear by the addition of various substances which will coagulate and settle, carrying with them to the bottom of the container, the material which causes the cloudiness. Clay, casein, and the white of egg are the most suitable materials for this purpose. Clay and casein are coagulated by the acid of the fruit juice. Egg white must be coagulated by heating the juice.
1. Clarification with Clay. Prepare a solution of good grade of clay by soaking 1 lb. of dry clay in each gallon of water. (A clay known as Spanish clay is considered best for this purpose, it being a medium grade of potters' clay.) The clay is soaked for about 10 days and then worked with the hands until it forms a smooth thin mud with the water.
To clarify apple juice with clay, add 1 pint of the thoroughly mixed clay to each 10 pints of juice and heat with stirring to 150° F. Let stand overnight.
The next morning pour off the clear juice and filter the sediment. The juice is then bottled and pasteurized as directed for unclarified juice. If clarification is imperfect, use more clay.
For grape juice, use 3/4 pint of the clay to each 10 pints of juice; other juices, 1 pint to 10 of juice and proceed as with apple juice. Occasionally, the juice will not become clear with this amount of clay and more must be added.
2. Clarification with Casein. Casein may be bought through a drug store. It comes as a granular powder. To dissolve it, add to each 3 oz. by weight of the casein, 1 tablespoonful of sal soda and 1 pint of water. Boil till dissolved and then add 7 pints of water.
Casein is used for grape juice only. To each 10 gallons of juice, add 1/2 gallon of the casein solution. Heat to 150° F.; allow to stand overnight; pour off clear juice. and filter the sediment.
3. Clarification by Combined Use of Casein and Clay. This combination gives good results with grape juice. Add 1/2 gallon of the casein solution and 1/2 gallon of the clay solution to each 10 gallons of juice and proceed as in "1."
4. Clarification with Egg White. Mix the white of 1 egg with a half pint of water. Add this to each gallon of grape juice. Heat to 175° F. and proceed as above. Egg white gives good results with grape juice but is not satisfactory for most other juices.